⇒ That ‘we could not contain the people’s fury; if we had gone too far, they would have exterminated us’. o French soldier in Paris, diary entry, May 1789. “They are laying the country waste”. o Lieutenant Villiers, 1795. A ‘declaration of total war’. o TCW Blanning on the Levée en Masse. “From this day and this place commenced a new epoch in the world’s history”. o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Valmy, 20th September 1792. The Revolution “set in motion new means and new forces”. o Carl von Clausewitz. The ‘rape of Europe’. o Charles Esdaile. “You must ensure, as a matter of principle, that war feeds war”. o Napoléon to Marshal Soult in 1810. “The French soldier is not an automaton”. o Report to the Military Committee of the Constituent Assembly. “Les aristocrates à la lanterne!” o Cries of the mutineers at Brest. “It is revolution, not insurrection”. o The Captain of Le Northumberland, when asked if his crew was in mutiny. “The People of Paris to All Europe: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”. o Carving on the French throne in 1848. “Our first priority is to save our world: if we are forced to permit trade for now… at a later time we will be able to redeem our honour”. o Sugita Gempaku. I am someone who can “bring fifty men-of-war to these shores”. o Townsend Harris, American consul-general at Shimoda. It would “disturb the ideas of our people and make it impossible to preserve lasting tranquillity”. o Emperor Kōmei on the Harris Treaty. To “honour the emperor, expel the barbarian” o Isolationist slogan. “The price of things is daily increasing,” because of foreign products. o The shogun’s council. Japan must “follow the example of the foreigners in using the profits from trade to construct many ships and guns”. o Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi, 1865. A promise ‘to unite the hearts of all people regardless of rank’. o Emperor Meiji’s Charter Oath, April 1868.