⇒ Stovin v Wise : the House of Lords held (3:2) that the public body in the case was not liable for their omission. It was said the public body had the power to act but not a duty to act.
⇒ Gorringe v Calderdale : the local authority was not held to be liable for their omission
⇒ Mitchell v Glasgow City Council : the council was not held to be liable for their omission
⇒ In other words, Lord Goff in Smith v Littlewoods Organisation Ltd  listed 4 scenarios where someone (i.e. a defendant) will be guilty of negligence where there has been an omission:
⇒ So a defendant may be liable for an omission where the claimant is dependent on them
⇒ For example, a child is dependent on their parents. So, a parent may be liable for an omission to act in a situation involving their child
⇒ Also, a school may be liable for railing to safeguard pupils against injury or meeting educational needs: Carty v Croydon London Borough Council 
⇒ A mental hospital may be liable for an omissions to act in a situation involving a patient (Savage v South Essex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust )
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⇒ If the defendant has a special relationship with a third party, who cause some kind of damage, then the defendant may be liable for their actions (despit not actually doing anything)
⇒ For example, in Home Office v Dorset Yacht Club , the defendant was liable as they had a relationship of control over the third parties (young male offenders) who caused damage to a boat
⇒ There is one question that still must be coveredL are the safety services (i.e. fire, police, ambulance, coastguards) liable when they muck up?
⇒ Conaghan and Mansell are highly critical with the law in relation to emergency services → "These decisions are troubling because of a sense we have that rescue services ought to be responsible if they do not do their job properly"
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